A unique wristwatch contains multiple modules, including a sensor array, a microfluidic chip, signal processing, and a data display system to monitor chemicals in human sweat. It can continuously and accurately monitor the levels of potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), and calcium (Ca2+) ions.

Researchers developed mass-manufactured sensor arrays based on hierarchical multilayer-pore cross-linked N-doped porous carbon coated by reduced graphene oxide (NPCs@rGO-950) microspheres with high hydrophobicity as core SC. This enabled highly selective monitoring of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions in human sweat.

Using computed tomography and solid-solid interface potential diffusion simulation, they found that he diffusion of substances between solid interfaces is very low, and the ability to store electrical charge at these interfaces is high. This ensures the excellent potential stability, reversibility, repeatability, and selectivity of sensor arrays.

The watch can consistently monitor the three ions in human sweat for over six months, surpassing the stability of many other sensors that have been reported. This study represents a comprehensive approach to material design, interface mechanism research, mass production of sensor chips, and modular full integration, providing more possibilities for wearable electrochemical sweat sensors, according to the team. (Image Credit: ZHAO Weiwei)

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