Researchers have implemented a novel technique called transcranial temporal interference electrical stimulation (tTIS) for noninvasive neuromodulation in humans to successfully target deep structures and enhance motor skill learning in healthy older subjects.

The scientists combined computational modeling, fMRI studies, and behavioral evaluations, to show, for the first time, that tTIS can specifically modulate an area deep within the brain called the striatum, which is a central processing hub of motor control and learning. Unlike other deep neuromodulation techniques, tTIS was able to reach the striatum without the need for invasive procedures.

The scientists applied bursts of electrical pulses in a specific pattern (theta burst) to modulate brain activity in human subjects. This pattern has been shown to induce changes in neural excitability and neuroplastic properties with large potential as an application for cognitive enhancement and neurorehabilitation. (Image credit: EPFL)

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